The Lagos State Government has announced that it has placed 4,000 unemployed graduates on N40,000 monthly salary for a period of 6 months.
The initiative which is implemented through the Ministry of Wealth Creation and Employment’s Graduate Internship Placement Programme (GIPP) is intended to address the challenge of unemployment among unemployed graduates in Lagos State.
This disclosure was made by the Lagos State Commissioner for Wealth Creation and Employment, Mrs Yetunde Arobieke, during the 2021 Ministerial Press Briefing in commemoration of the Second Year in the Office of Governor Bababjide Sanwo-Olu.
Arobieke said the programme, which was planned to last for six months, was meant to expose interns to a particular job, profession or industry and enhance networking.
She pointed out that through this initiative, interns will be given the opportunity to excel and possibly learn a job with the organisation; as they are exposed to professional skills and interpersonal relationships in a structured setting.
Source: Information Nigeria
In the past, hires were expected to spend their life-time working in their new organizations. Because of this, new employees’ induction and orientation took the form of brief introduction to the company, meet-and-greet and sometimes speeches from top executives of the company like the Managing Director and followed by heap of documents and forms to be filled by the new hire.
Nowadays, job candidates are looking for job opportunities that would give them ample time to attend to other things, socialize etc not just a job and they now prefer freelancing, work-from-home, short-term contracts as they job-trot before landing a good one.
This is a one-day welcome event for a new employee as a team player, where the job and the organization are introduced to the new hire and vis versa. The process provides information on the rights of the employee, the rights of the employer, terms and conditions of employment. The new hire is also exposed to the culture of the organization and might take the form of slide-show presentation, a meet-and-greet, provision of company’s catalogues, HR handbook to new recruits or tour with relevant co-workers etc. It is meant to provide basic information and ease the new hire’s first-day-at-work jitters.
Orientation is a process of familiarizing new hires with company policies and guidelines; a short-term activity, most times completed in the first week of new hire’s resumption. It is about compliance and getting new hires up to speed with the Company’s processes and procedures, paperwork, and general administrative structures. This might include introduction to the company’s products and services, information on partners, accounting processes, and guidelines etc. This is also a part of the “Knowledge Management” process.
Induction and orientation are twin important aspects of any new hire’s career journey in a company but it must be noted that they are both short-term experiences and represents only the first few steps of that journey. This is why onboarding is necessary.
It is estimated that 50% of managerial roles fail within the first 18 months while for the majority of employees, 50% leave their new job within the first four months. To effectively nip this in the bud, an effective onboarding should be implemented.
Onboarding is a process of making the new hire get adjusted to the social and performance aspects of the job roles quickly and seamlessly; it is a full new-hire journey as it begins with the signing of contract, continues through the new hires first day at work (induction and orientation), fourth week etc and does not end until the new hire is fully settled in his/ her new job roles. This is irrespective of the length of time it takes – 6months or one year – and terminates when he/ she is fully integrated into his/ her new job roles.
They are both new recruit processes and to a greater extent dictates the success or failure of the new hires within the organization.
During the onboarding period, new hires learn about the organization, undergo training, mentoring, and performance reviews are carried out as they are exposed to the culture of the organization, acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) required to perform optimally in their new job roles
Before an organization engages in onboarding, there has to be a deliberate and formal onboarding program. The Company should be able to answer some salient questions so as to come up with an all-inclusive plan.
- When will it commence?
- What is the time-line for the onboarding program?
- What do they (new hires) need to know about the Company’s structure, culture and work environment?
- What do we (the company) intend to impart to the new hires?
- What will be the roles of HR, Line Managers & peers?
- What do we intend to achieve at the end of the onboarding program?
- What are the possible challenges and how do we address them?
- How do we obtain feedbacks from the program?
- How will you measure it’s success?
With the above questions well answered, the HR and top Management would marshal out plans for its implementation to assist new hires easily understand the company’s policies, culture and workflow and get blended with the workings of the organization.
Onboarding as a process recognizes that 20% of new hires leave for new job opportunities within the first 45 days on the job.
Challenges of Onboarding
Onboarding can be awkward sometimes as new hires face the challenges of the “unknown“. They ask themselves thought-provoking questions: can I please this “iron lady who is my boss?”. Will they confirm my appointment at the end of probation period? Is this the last bus stop or I should start looking for another job? etc. These questions and answers provoke decisions to be taken in the coming days.
Here are some of the challenges of onboarding:
- Probationary Period:
During the onboarding period, new hires are in the habit of asking themselves: will I be confirmed? Will I be able to impress on the job or will I be successful on the job? Will my Supervisor recognize my inputs?
The employer on its part will also be asking if the new hire would be able to get along with their team, manager and other employees within the Company? Companies are worried about employees’ social connections because they matter so much to her as they look up to cordial relationships amongst her employees.
- Is there Career Prospect?
This is one other great challenge of onboarding. The new recruits are worried and they want to know their fates; they want to know what is in there for them; they ask themselves if the company was a place for them to stay and if there was career prospects? They ask themselves if it was a place to stay and if the answer is yes, they tend to stay but the next question would be, for how long?
Truly speaking, a conducive workplace will have a highly reduced labour turnover and engendered-growth. Employees may be inclined to stay longer here because of certain factors: they want to gain knowledge in a different work environment, or industry, specialize in a specific area etc, as they enjoy their job roles.
Irrespective of the above factors, employees want to work in a company where there is career prospects and growth, where they can build their career and be happy too.
This is another challenge as the new hire is worried about the new culture he or she is to be confronted with. He tries to fashion out a way to manage this. The organization is not less perturbed either.
- Adapting to Continuous Change
This is one factor that has affected onboarding as a lot of organizations do not review their onboarding policies. There is need to regularly update the onboarding process of the company so as to remain current with global trends and ensure that the workforce is aligned with the latest news and current processes.
It is very pertinent that organisations continuously adapt to changes in onboarding.
- Measuring the Results
Another challenge in onboarding is measuring the result of onboarding. Some design or send out forms as a feedback strategy in the form of survey after onboarding training. I would recommend looking at your retention rates or employees who turn out to be high-performers within their first year within the organisation.
Yes, it is important to collect feedback from new recruits at the onboarding stages but you should know that new hires may not be comfortable providing sincere feedbacks in two weeks into their onboarding but may be more comfortable a month into it and the confidence continues to grow in the coming months.
Advantages and Prospects of Onboarding:
Proper onboarding in an organization,
- Eases integration of new recruits
- Builds relationships,
- Ensures expectations on both sides are met
- Develops employee’s knowledge of the culture
- Strengthens employees’ commitment as roles are clarified and defined
- Engenders self-efficacy
- Teaches basic new hires basic Company policies
- Provides the formal and informal norms of the company etc
Some organisations carry out induction and orientation for new employees while thinking and believing (erroneously) that they are engaged in onboarding. Such companies miss the advantages acruable in onboarding as it is confirmed that “organizations with a strong onboarding process improves new hire retention by 82% and productivity by over 70%”.
Onboarding, without mincing words has so many prospectd and organisations would grow tremendously if it is religiously implemented.
Contributed by Agolo Uzorka, CEO/ Lead Consultant at Eugene + George Consulting Limited
It was the middle of July 2008, and I had just bought an expensive power suit for a job interview. After being laid off during the height of the recession and unemployed for about six weeks, I was feeling desperate and willing to spend money on anything that might put my career on track.
Surprisingly, the train was running on time that day, which gave me the opportunity to take my new jacket off, sit back, and prepare for this meeting one last time. At my stop, I realized I was so intently focused that I didn’t notice a robbery happening right under my nose. The jacket was gone.
With nothing but an inappropriate tank top on, I was mortified but decided to go for it anyway. I proceeded to meet all of the organization’s department heads, during which time my thoughts repeatedly returned to my improper attire. But believe it or not, I ended up getting the job.
Even though my story had a happy ending, there’s no doubt the pressures of the interview process had me unnerved. Anything can happen before or during an interview, which is why it’s crucial to walk in feeling prepared — even if your jacket has just been stolen.
Interviewers will be focused on finding out if you’re the right fit for the position, but it’s also important to decide if the company is the right fit for you. Have a list of questions to ask in a job interview.
Be careful not to ask questions already answered in the job description. It’s important to go beyond those general duties to understand everything the job entails.
1. Can you offer specific details about the position’s day-to-day responsibilities?
2. What would my first week at work look like?
3. How does this position contribute to the organization’s success?
4. What do you hope I will accomplish in this position?
5. How does the company culture affect this role?
6. What job shadowing opportunities are available for an applicant before they accept an offer?
Proceed with caution: If rather than going into detail about the primary responsibilities listed in the job description, the employer rambles off many more duties — they may be asking you to take on more than you initially thought. How to Read a Job Description
Getting to know the interviewer
Most likely, the interviewer is the first contact you’ll have at this company — they could even be your future boss. Asking questions can help you understand their attitude, company values, and where the company’s future is heading.
7. What do you enjoy most about working here?
8. Why are you working in this industry?
9. Can you walk me through your typical work day?
10. What is your greatest accomplishment with the company?
11. What is your team’s greatest accomplishment?
12. What goals do you have for the company, yourself, and employees over the next five years?
13. What hobbies do you have outside of the office?
Proceed with caution: Be wary of leaders who have trouble opening up or don’t seem passionate about their company and team. How to Find the Perfect Company
What type of management style do you need to reach the height of your potential? Now’s the best time to see if the company’s leaders align with your expectations.
14. How do leaders encourage employees to ask questions?
15. How do leaders set employees up for success?
16. How does employee feedback get incorporated into day-to-day operations?
17. How does management deliver negative feedback to employees?
Proceed with caution: Employers who can’t list how they encourage employees and set them up for success may not deliver the support you’re looking for in a company.
From benefits and perks to the ways employees interact with each other, not meshing with a company’s culture can put a roadblock on your path to success.
18. What is your work culture like?
19. How would you describe the work environment here?
20. What benefits are focused on work-life balance?
21. What benefits and perks does the company offer?
22. What is the outline of your telecommuting policy?
23. How frequently do employees make themselves available outside of normal working hours?
Proceed with caution: Listen closely to how the interviewer describes the company’s benefits and environment to be sure it’s the right culture for your personality and working style. What Aspects of Company Culture Matter Most for Your Next Job
After doing some research, you should already know a few things about the company’s reputation. Now it’s time to dig a little deeper to make sure this is a place where you’ll thrive.
24. What’s your mission statement?
25. How often is a new hire the result of a previous employee quitting?
26. Why do most employees leave the company?
27. How would employees describe the company and its leaders?
28. What are the company’s biggest problems? How are they overcoming them?
29. What do you want the company to be known for among employees — past, present, and future?
Proceed with caution: Quality leaders will be the first to admit that their company isn’t perfect. Interviewers who claim they would change nothing might be failing to grow and make positive changes.
Knowing a company’s expectations and how they measure goals before accepting a job offer helps you decide if their style matches with what motivates you.
30. How are employees recognized for their hard work?
31. How involved are employees in the structuring of their own goals and tasks?
32. What are your views on goals, timelines, and measuring success?
33. How often are employees expected to provide status updates on a project?
34. How often do you evaluate employee performance?
Proceed with caution: Wanting constant updates and control over employee tasks are warning signs of a micromanager.
The employees at this organization could be your next team. Make sure you’re positive this is a group you want to be a part of.
35. Can you tell me about the team I’ll be working with?
36. How competitive are your employees?
37. How do you develop teamwork skills among employees?
Proceed with caution: A competitive environment can be fun and motivating, but a lack of teamwork in the office could point to a cutthroat company.
Opportunities for growth
What is your ultimate career goal? Set yourself up for success by finding out how far this new position could take you on your career path.
38. What type of mentor system do you have in place?
40. What advancement opportunities are available?
41. How do leaders promote employee growth and success?
42. What does it take to be a top performer at this company?
Proceed with caution: If an interviewer is unable to share how you can advance within the company, chances are you might not be able to grow at the rate you want.
Don’t leave the interview with any questions unanswered — for you or the interviewer. This is your final opportunity to make sure you’re both on the same page before you walk out the door.
43. What’s the next step of this process, and when can I expect to hear from you?
44. Is there any other information I can provide you with?
45. Would you like to see more examples of my work?
Proceed with caution: Interviewers who don’t have a lot to offer on next steps may already have another candidate in mind or might not be in a big rush to hire. Remember to stay positive and continue to job search until you’re officially hired.
Change is the adoption of new idea or behavior by an organization (Daft, 1995). Change in an existing organization is meant to increase its effectiveness in achieving its corporate objectives; it is the bedrock of industrial and organizational effectiveness. Change means to alter, replace, substitute, exchange etc. Whatever form it takes, differences could be spotted between the former and present when it occurs. It is ‘an activity of transformation or modification of something … with the objective to make improvements”.
Change is unavoidable in our socio-economic, political and technological lives, Davies (1983) defines “Work Change” as any alteration that occurs in the work environment. Work change can occur in men, machines, policies, methods, and even location. Change could be from Internal or External source.
Internal Sources: This change could occur in structure, training, interpersonal and intrapersonal change (e.g. self growth and self development), leadership change etc.
External Sources: These are changes occasioned by outside forces like government policies, pandemic, consumer behavior, inflation, increase or decrease in people’s purchasing powers, religious upsurge, technology, war, natural disaster etc. It should be noted that most times the external pressures are so powerful to the extent that they have great powers to ignite internal organizational changes. Changes could be destructive or constructive.
Reasons for Resistance to Change: As important as change is in organizations, some employees still resist it and hate it without pretence. I remember on occassions I was brought in to inject fresh ideas to revive a failing organisation and the fierce resistance received. Infact, managing resistance to change in the workplace could be herculean
The resistance could be as result of:
- Parochial self interest.
- Lack of confidence in the changer.
- Bad communication strategy,
- Fear for Loss of job,
- Disruption of social life,
- Poor timing,
- Fear of unknown,
- Cost of Change,
- Level of Preparedness for Change,
- Disruption of Known Relationships,
- Lack of Trust,
- Lack of Reward
- Loss of Support System
- Loss of Control
- Lack of Competence
- Experience from former change
- Lack of Human face in the aspect of change
- Poor Planning
- No clarity
- Out of comfort Zone
- Resistance as Normal
- Loss of identity
Quide on Managing Resistance to Change
- Proper Education/ Explanations to employees
- Change agent(s) must be honest/ trustable persons
- Change implementation should be sincere/ gradual
- Right Timing
- Effective communication necessary
- Employees should be prepared psychologically
- Change agents must be selfless and competent persons
- Good knowledge of change objectives
- Good reward system
- Openness, Clarity and objectivity should be the watchword
- All grey areas should be addressed
These quides will assist in change management in your organizations and if effectively managed, will be a source of strength to the organisation and improve the bottomline.
Written by: Agolo Uzorka, CEO/ Lead Consultant, Eugene + George Consulting Limited
A good resume can get your foot in the door, but a well-written one can put you on the top of the consideration list. Here are a couple of tips from two experienced recruiters to help you construct a resume that could give you an edge, Andro Kahn, Global Recruitment Manager, and Monique van Der Zanden, Graduate Recruiter, who offers a few tips worth taking note of.
1. Provide concrete evidence of your qualifications
“Most recruiters spend about 7 minutes scanning through profiles.” says Andro Kahn. In that time, an applicant’s resume should ideally communicate key competencies and achievements in a clear and concise manner.
For students and graduates without professional experience, this means providing evidence of your qualifications in detail. Monique explains:
“They should have a think about all the activities that they have been involved in that helped them develop as a person. This could be work experience, but it could also be voluntary activities.”
Sometimes the difference between a good resume and a great one lies in the details. Monique says:
“If you have written on your resume that you were active in a study or a student’s association, on a great resume, you would also quantify your involvement. For example, whether you had any budget responsibilities, how big the association was etc. Quantifying the experience is important.”
When it comes to resumes, numbers speak louder than words.
When sharing your professional experiences, sharing details such as how many people were in your team, the size of your project, and the number of customers you dealt with are critical. When it comes to resumes, numbers speak louder than words. Where you are not permitted to share the exact details of delivery such as profit or technical information that is sensitive or confidential for your previous employer find creative ways to establish the quantifiable delivery.
- “Increased sales volumes by 10% above industry average” is more powerful than simply saying that you met your sales targets.
- “Delivered a new software product that was purchased by 5,000 new customers” can be more revealing than saying that you “worked on new software that had a successful sales result”.
- Saying that you were “responsible for changing an engineering process that reduced delivery time by 40%” helps to demonstrate the impact your activity had.
3. Be concise
“The resume should be written in a manner that’s clear and concise. I recommend adding a statement at the top stating your career objective and why you’re qualified for the particular position you’re applying for.” – Recruitment Manager, Andro Kahn
The best resumes are the ones that can communicate a candidate’s roles, achievements, and strengths from a quick glance.
Streamlining your resume in a way that highlights your competencies clearly is key. Only include details that will lend insights into your achievements. Avoid vague and generic statements, and most importantly, choose function over form. Andro recalls a recent resume that stood out to him:
“In one glance, I was able to understand what the person did, what their strengths were, what they were able to achieve, and the relationships they built.”
4. Use keywords and action verbs
Try identifying the unique set of keywords associated with your role.
Every recruiter has a checklist of skills required for a role. Knowing what skills to list on your resume can give you an edge, as Andro explains:
“Normally we have keywords per function or role – so I try to see if there’s a fit. If I’m looking for an Analytics person for example, I tend to look at the skills relating to the analytics projects that they did. Describe what you did, what was accomplished and what competencies you used for each experience.”
To stand out from other applicants, try identifying the unique set of keywords associated with your target role, often found in the job description, then tailor your resume to accommodate those words.
After adding your keywords, scan your current resume and identify words and phrases that can be substituted. As Andro puts it, “Use powerful words in terms of describing what you did. We’d like you to use action verbs, or task-based words.”
5. Ask a friend to review the resume for errors and clarity
Get a fresh perspective from a friend.
Sometimes a good way to gauge how easy it is to understand your resume and your qualifications is to get a fresh perspective from someone you know. Along with possible minor typos and grammar errors, there may be terms in there that a recruiter or hiring manager may not be familiar with or may not understand. For students and graduates, it is helpful to provide context where something is specific to your school or university. Monique explains:
“Bear in mind that the person or the recruiter reading the resume might not be knowledgeable for instance of a student association that you’ve been a part of so it’s important to provide some explanation.”
Contributed by Shell Recruiters, Andro Kahn, Global Recruitment Manager, and Monique van Der Zanden, Graduate Recruiter
Nigeria is a beautiful country, but it has a high rate of unemployment. Many of its’ educated and able-bodied youths are employed or unemployable. So we have to find alternatives to this problem. One way to tackle this problem is to open an online shop.
Learn a skill
What do you plan to sell? If you plan to sell Snacks, Cakes or Food you can learn how to make some on the EliStatus website and try ensure you practice enough after watching. Buy the ingredients and make it at home. Once you have mastered making the items give the items to family and friends to test out.
If you do not want to learn a skill, you can buy and resell items online. The concept is simple, buy an item people like and resell at a higher price. Where can you find products to buy at cheap and affordable prices? I would suggest going to the state of ABA located in the Eastern part of Nigeria or the local market to source for these items. You do not have to hold actual stock of the item.
Creating a shop is not difficult. You can create an online shop on Instagram for free and advertise using Facebook ads. You can also create an online shop on Jumia and pay them a commission on each sale. You could also create an online shop on Facebook. I will advise you create your own website (email: firstname.lastname@example.org for assistance), the reason being that you do not want to compete against other shops on one platform. This will allow you to build a customer list as you continue to advertise and make sales.
You will need good pictures to get people to buy your Products for the same price as your online shop. When an item looks bad in pictures or videos no one will want to buy from you. Either buy a fantastic Camera or buy a very good smartphone that comes with a good camera. Think of it this way. The client cannot see it in person so they must rely on the image to buy your product.
The background of the picture matters. I suggest you get this mini studio to help you achieve professional pictures. It is pretty cheap for what you can get out of it.
Get Customers and keep them happy
Advertise your products well. I will advise you use Facebook and Instagram ads. You can reach your target audience here. You have to learn to keep your customers happy. It is easier to get a customer who bought from you once to buy from you again. It is much more difficult to get new people to trust your brand and buy from you. This is why I said a website would be useful to you. When you have a website, you can have a private mailing list. You can send out newsletters every week to keep clients happy and updated on new products and services.
You need a very good delivery/ logistics company to assist you with deliveries. A lot of times the customer would rather pay for shipping rather than pick it up themselves. You need people you can trust to help you with this. You cannot deliver everything yourself when your business grows so partner with a delivery company you trust.
Have more tips? Need some advice? Comment below and I will get back to you!
Please share with friends and family.
Contributed by Kofoworola George-Taylor of www.elistatus.com, created to help people learn new skills and be happy!
HR Analytics, People Analytics and Workforce Analytics are all same terms interchangeably used. HR Analytics is about using data to make better business decisions; it is a data-driven approach geared towards managing people at the workplace.
Many HR professionals have variously defined it and they have been unanimous in their definitions. It is “the systematic identification and quantification of people drivers of business outcomes”. “HR Analytics is a data-driven approach towards HR Management“. “it is the quantification of people drivers on business outcomes”. It measures why something is happening and its impact.
Again, Workforce Analytics is about analyzing people data to answer critical questions about people in your organization. For instance, What is your annual employee turnover? Or What percentage of your employees are likely to resign their appointments from your Company in the next six months? These questions can only be answered using data.
HR Analytics starts with an opinion and data helps to confirm the opinion. Thereafter, we compare the data and make valid judgments. This is where metrics come in.
HR Metrics are measurements used to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of HR policies – they compare different data points. For instance, if last year’s labour cost was 10% and it is now 15%, it then means that it has increased by 50%. Metrics measure the difference between numbers and compare different data – they don’t show you the cause. Measures or metrics without analysis has no true value.
It is a fact that HR Departments are very good at collecting data (for example the Performance Appraisal) but how much of these data are put into use?! A lot of them remain unused. As soon as organisations start analysing these collected data, they are involved in HR Analytics.
HR Analytics assists HR professionals in making data-driven decisions to attract, maintain, develop and motivate the workforce and improve ROI; enables managers make better business decisions, create conducive and better work-environment and maximize employees’ productivity.
What I have learnt as a Consultant over the years is that applying HR Analytics changes how Companies do business and add values to the business. it helps organisations identify different levels that they can turn better decisions. In effect, when HR Analytics is well utilized, it creates positive impact on the bottomline.
Truly, Talent Analytics is connotative and more often used in the academic environment, while workforce analytics is more used by software providers whilst assisting in workforce planning. People Analytics and HR Analytics simply refer to the statistical analysis of people data. Of these, HR Analytics is more globally used and popular according to RS Research and ranks highest in Google search while People Analytics ranks second. Although, People Analytics is increasingly becoming popular because HR Analytics is becoming overused and everything referred to HR data is now being referred to as HR Analytics!
Again, the term HR analytics is very narrow because it only refers to Human Resources. Ideally, analytics go beyond HR as it includes financials, and other data. Infact, HR department sometimes don’t have the skill-set requisite to carry out data analysis hence it requires professionals with experiences in IT, Finance and other related data analytical areas.
Whether you are looking at performance, calculating productivity trends, employees’ turnover, reviewing ROI or engaged in long-term workforce planning, you are involved in studying and analyzing people. HR Departments have focused on people-related matters that transcends Human Resources for decades.
Without mincing words, the responsibility of managing people in the workplace has always been a shared responsibility between the business and HR. An attempt to distinguish between HR Analytics and People Analytics appears to be a bit difficult because it is a matter of semantics. Rather, we should focus on the value that analytics bring or adds to the overall business performances by improving the overall decision-making process.
- It changes the way people are managed in a significant way as you no longer rely on emotions, gossips etc in decision-making;
- Helps HR professionals in making informed data-driven decisions and also tests the effectiveness (HR output) and efficiency (input) of HR policies and interventions;
- Engenders better compensation, incentive and drives employee performance
- Minimises the incidence of making decisions based on intuition
- Promotes better employee development and improves engagement
- Identifies causes and its impact on the business;
- Tracks the effectiveness of HR metrics on HR business outcomes;
- Provides answers to very salient questions;
- Enables better workforce planning
- Points out the effects of metrics on business performance
- Helps create a business case for HR interventions, moving from operational partner to strategic partner;
HR departments these days simply focus more on reporting employee data but this approach is outdated in today’s data driven economy. Mere keeping records is not sufficient to add strategic value. The data should be turned into information and the information into insight. Turning data into insights enables HR to be more involved in decision making at a more strategic level and adds value to the organization, enhancing its efficiency and effectiveness.
I must state at this juncture that any monies spent on general business analytics delivers multiple values in return.
Contributed by Agolo Uzorka, CEO/ Lead Consultant, Eugene + George Consulting Limited
In real life situations, performance appraisal is a daily activity as it is also to organisations. We evaluate our activities daily, weekly, monthly or yearly to see our achievement and, challenges, correct our mistakes and set new targets.
More so in organisations. The continued success of organisations is dependent on its employees who in all thinking is the primary resource. Their development and retention is a critical success factor if it must meet with its present and future requirements and surpass same.
Performance appraisal sometimes referred to as performance evaluation or personnel evaluation, is very important in Human Resource Management, a tool that places high in people Management. Other factors / functions which contribute to employee development are staff orientation and career development and all these add-up to enhance organizational effectiveness.
Infact, performance appraisal is a fulcrum on which major HR activities revolve. Many informed decisions such as promotions, wage hikes, transfers, terminations, job rotation, job enlargement, succession planning etc emanates from this. Again, allocation of organizational resources is facilitated by performance appraisal too.
What is Performance Appraisal?
“Performance appraisal is the process by which an organization obtains a feedback about the effectiveness of its employees”. It is the evaluation of employee’s job performance and contributions to the organisation. In other words, it is a mechanism through which employees and the organization obtain feedback and provides organisation with assessment data for present and future use. It is the measurement of performance against set and agreed target over a given period of time so as to obtain to obtain feedback.
The purpose of Performance Appraisal stems from the need to improve organizational efficiency by ensuring that employees perform to the best of their ability and also develop their potentials for improvement. A good performance appraisal or management system is designed to serve two (2) main purposes:
- Evaluative purpose and
- Developmental purpose
Evaluative Functions: This function helps to promote or reward higher performance while at the same time assists to determine low performance.
Development Function: On the other hand, this performance appraisal function is useful in determining training needs of the subordinates while at the same time motivates them to higher performance.
Unfortunately, many people lay more emphasis on the evaluative function to the neglect of the developmental function.
A good organization should have a well laid down policy on employee performance management and the potential of each employee to access his/ her future development.
Performance appraisal must be seen as a result-oriented machinery for the growth of individual and company and not as firing squad or punitive measure. You should note that organisations decide on what performance appraisal system to be adopted based on its laid down policy, suitability and operational modus.
Performance appraisal is either open or closed. The open system is profound in the private sector while the closed system is more practiced in the public sector.
Performance appraisal can be classified under two broad systems: Individual and Multi-Person Appraisal Systems.
Individual Appraisal Method:
In the individual appraisal method, employee’s performance is studied over a given period. This is aimed at identifying their strengths and weaknesses. Examples of these are Annual Confidential Reports, Essay Evaluation, Management by Objectives (MBO) and Check List Methods.
- Confidential Reports:
Perhaps, this is the oldest method. It is a report prepared by employee’s senior/ supervisor wherein he/ she highlights the subordinate’s strength and weaknesses in the past year. The flaw about this method is that the feedback on the report prepared is not disclosed to the employee for whom this has been written because every report is kept confidential.
- Critical Incident and Checklist Techniques:
In the critical incident technique, the superior studies and analyze the subordinate’s best and worse incidents of behavior in the past year; analyzing the most critical incidents while in the checklist method, the supervisor is given a paper that has set of statements that are expressive and purpose in nature, and the answers to which are either YES or NO. Here, the usual and typical questions are whether/ or not the performance was satisfactory and whether or not the standards were met.
Multiple Persons Appraisal Methods:
The multi-person appraisal method compares the performances of the employees in a particular department and are pitted against one another to identify the best performers and the worst performers. Examples of multi-person appraisal methods are Ranking System, Paired Comparison, Forced Distribution, Performance Tests and 360-Degree Appraisal.
- Paired Comparison Method:
In this technique, the superior compares each individual to all the other individuals working in the team and the subordinates are all ranked on the basis of criteria and traits analyzed. The comparison method could be from the best to the worst or the worst to the best.
- Management by Objective (MBO)
The Management by Objective (MBO) is the well-known technique for setting goals, then judging how they are met; it emphasizes on tangible and measurable goals. The Key Result Areas (KRA) and the means to attain maximum results are concentrated upon. This system gives the superior the opportunity of knowing his/ her team’s KRAs and the results expected at the end of the year/ or given period. In this method, the job is delegated and the authority, responsibility and relationship is defined.
In this method, both the supervisor and the subordinate discuss, negotiate and agree the goals to be attained over a period. The objectives/ target are expected to adhere to the SMARTER rules – Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic, Time-bound, Ethical and Recorded.
- 360-Degree Method:
The 360-degree appraisal method involves various stakeholders – the employee’s immediate supervisor, other supervisors who are not the bosses but comes in contact with the employee/ appraisee on a daily basis, the top management, and the employee’s subordinates as all provide data/ information on his/ her performances.
All 360-degree of employee working and working styles are analyzed involving the whole cycle of individuals with whom the employee comes in contact or interacts with on the course of work. The feedback from the appraisal is passed on to the employee for increased performance.
Why do we conduct Performance Appraisal?
Performance appraisal aims at regularly assessing and reporting on subordinate’s performances, attainment, abilities and potentials for future development. It further seeks to:
- Clarify the Key Result Areas (KRA) of the job and provide basis to agree on targets and standards of performance for a given period;
- Assess performance of employees and agree on how to foster continuous improvement;
- Provide opportunity for a formal recognition and documentation of performances (the subordinate has opportunity to bring certain achievements or constraints being experienced on the job to the attention of the boss, his/ her career plans and aspirations);
- Generate information for management’s decision-making on issues like promotion, transfers, succession planning, job rotation, job redefinition, disengagement etc;
- Determine employee potentials and provide guided development;
- Provide opportunity for identifying individual training and developmental needs;
- Take stock of skills and talents available, strength and weaknesses of employees in the organization
- Provide feedback to employees on how organization view their (employee) performances;
- Improve communication by compelling superiors and subordinates to hold periodic dialogue/ meeting and provide feedback;
- Provide basis for reward decisions – merit increases, reassignment and expatriation
- Generate data/ information upon which workplans, budgeting and HR Planning can be based
- Inform job distribution/ redesign, job enlargement, career planning and development;
- To provide a ready tool for evaluating the effectiveness of selection and placement decisions;
- Identify training and development needs for individual employees and entire teams/ divisions within the organization;
- Provide a good criteria for assessing the success or otherwise of previous training and development efforts
- Help in determining salary related decisions;
- Serve as a counseling forum;
- Emphasize the strength and weaknesses of employees;
- Improve motivation
Without mincing words, it must be stated that performance appraisal is key to the success of organisations as managers constantly make judgments about their subordinates based on performance appraisal and are expected to provide periodic feedbacks.
To make feedback a powerful instrument in performance appraisal and in improving the level of satisfaction, performance appraisal must not only be based on an objective criteria, but such criteria should have been jointly put in place and agreed between the supervisor and subordinate as employees who are involved in actually setting their own goals tend to perform at higher levels.
Contributed by Agolo Uzorka, CEO/ Lead Consultant, Eugene + George Consulting Limited
The Federal Government on Thursday convened another meeting with members of the organised labour movement.
This comes after an attempt to resolve the impasse between the government and workers’ unions over the recent hike in the price of petrol and electricity tariff failed on Sunday.
In his opening remarks at Thursday’s meeting in Abuja, the Minister of Labour and Employment, Dr Chris Ngige, said Sunday’s event was not a walkout but a recess.
He insisted that both parties – the government and the labour unions – were working for the betterment of the nation.
Ngige stressed that the issues at stake, which included the hike in electricity tariff and the price of petrol, do not only affect the citizens but also those on the government’s side.
He was hopeful that the meeting would produce the results that would be beneficial to both parties.
The Secretary to the Government of the Federation (SGF), Mr Boss Mustapha, who was also at the meeting, addressed the labour leaders.
He gave an assurance that the government would ensure that resolutions reached would be for the benefit of the Nigerian people.
Mustapha also thanked the labour leaders for their show of patriotism, stressing that what happened on Sunday was a recess and not a breakdown of discussions.
On his part, TUC President, Peter Esele, stressed the need for sincerity on the part of the government to enable the meeting to arrive at a logical conclusion.
He also appealed to the conveners of the meeting to allow the media stay till the end of the discussion for the purpose of transparency
The NLC President, Ayuba Wabba, was absent at the meeting, but he was represented by the General Secretary of the National Union of Electricity Employees (NUEE), Joe Ajaero.
Ajaero disagreed with the remarks of the labour minister and the SGF that the last meeting was a recess, insisting that it did not end peacefully.
He also insisted that the agenda for discussion should be presented for adoption before going forward.
After the representatives from both sides made their remarks, the meeting went into a technical session.
Others in attendance include the Minister of State for Labour and Employment, Festus Keyamo; the Minister of State for Petroleum Resources, Timipre Sylva; and the Minister of Humanitarian Affairs, Sadiya Farouk.
The government has continued to engage the labour unions in discussions since October when the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) and the Trade Union Congress (TUC) threatened to embark on a nationwide protest over the increased prices.
On their part, the NLC and TUC have consistently maintained that the government should reverse the prices and provide palliatives to cushion the immediate effects of the hike before it engages them in a dialogue.
A meeting to address the issues on Sunday was stalled after the organised labour movement staged a walkout to protest what they described as government’s breach of agreement.
Source: Channels TV
The increasing cases of the COVID-19 do not only present an alarming health crisis to Nigeria but also come with human impact, the significant economic, business and commercial impact being felt across the nation, especially among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).
These and how to reposition businesses for growth either Post-COVID or in the new normal were discussed at the recent PwC Nigeria webinar tagged ‘Repositioning your business for growth
At the webinar, Taiwo Oyedele, Fiscal Policy Partner, West Africa Tax Leader, explained that the pandemic may not leave anytime soon and the best way to go about it is to find ways to leave with the virus for the foreseeable future.
He said, “SME sector plays a vital role with about 40 million of them operating in all sector of the Nigerian economy, employing over 60% of the country’s workforce and providing a livelihood for the majority of homes.
“Some estimates have it that millions of MSMEs have shut production and they may not be able to open again, as they suffer from lack of liquidity, credit, income among others.”
Back story: Last June, Nairametrics had reported that an overwhelming 94.3% of businesses surveyed reported being negatively impacted by the pandemic particularly in the areas of Cashflow, Sales and Revenue.
“Financially, a good number of the businesses were doing poorly as about 13% reported having enough cash flow to stay operational for 1 – 3 months while about 33% had enough cash flow to stay operational for only 1 – 4 weeks and about 27% for only 1 – 7 days. A number of jobs were also impacted as 82.8% of the businesses reported that they were likely to lay off 1 – 5 employees,” a Fate Foundation report stated.
While almost 50% of the businesses were able to identify opportunities despite the negative impacts of the pandemic along the lines of creating new products and services, expansion and diversification etc, most businesses reported needing support with cash flow and sales and would like support in the area of funding, access to markets and business support.
As far as Tara Durotoye, CEO House of Tara International is concerned SMEs owners should be strategic by dissecting the issues affecting their operations into two i.e What they have control over and what they do not.
According to her, Nigeria does not have a government that supports the reality of the challenges the SMEs are going through, advising business owners not to look up to the government but rather find ways to work around issues and find the solutions.
She said, “This is the time to be closed to your customers, time to call them and find out what they want as the pandemic has created a new normal. For instance, in the makeup industry, findings revealed that customers demand products like powder and lipsticks have dropped. What customers want now is to take care of their skin and not just to cover them, we would not have known that except we engaged our customers.”
Technology has become an important part of SMEs operations and operators have to think of the current resources they have and what they can do more about the resources in terms of skill set. There are people who were in makeup that is now doing consultancy, others in Agro and now doing logistics.
She cited an event centre in Lekki corridor, who due to COVID-19 have not been engaged for social gatherings as usual. spoke with its customers using social media platforms and decided to meet their needs by turning the centre to an open market on Saturday.
“It realised that some women in the area were not comfortable going to Balogun or Mile 12 market during the pandemic and decided to create that open market for them.
“Also, there is a Game Centre that has started offering video conferencing services to its clients. It observed a gap in the video conferencing space and explore it. They created a video conference app that would not require much space like Zoom to download and that works on small phones,” Tara said.
She added that this is the time for all business owners to create a will to forge ahead and understand that they do not have a government like Canada or US that would meet their needs as expected.
However, Abubakar Kure, MD NIRSAL MFB in his presentation explained that the Federal Government introduced the TSF and other loans to cushion the effect of the pandemic on SMEs and households when it realised business owners lack the required cash flow to survive the shock arriving from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Kure agreed with Tara that SMEs have to think out of the box and not wait for the government but explained that despite the fact that the government has limited resources, it has introduced several facilities across sectors to cushion the effect of the pandemic on businesses.
Shortly after the July Monetary Policy Committee meeting, Nairametrics had reported that between April when the TSF loan was launched and July 12, 2020, the Central Bank of Nigeria has disbursed N49.19 billion out of the N50 billion Household and SME facility to over 92,000 beneficiaries.
Also, the apex bank disbursed over N152.9 billion to the manufacturing sector to finance 61 manufacturing projects and another N93.6 billion to the Healthcare sector, amongst many other sector-specific facilities.
He said, “The facilities are token but SMEs need to strategies and think out of the box as suggested, The facilities are actually subsidised because they are between 1 to 3 years at 5% for 1 year and 9% subsequently.”
He added that the facilities are actually subsidised for businesses to survive and for people to retain their jobs and for the economy to recover from the shock created by the pandemic.
In conclusion, PwC made in-depth recommendations for government, SMEs and stakeholders on policy and strategies to cushion the effects of the pandemic on the nation’s ailing economy.
Written by Abiola Odutola